En plus de ressembler à un évadé du spectacle Muppet, la seiche commune est capable de gratification différée, en transmettant des crabes, des proies qu’ils mangeront mais ne pas prendre de prix, pour obtenir un repas préféré de crevettes Crédit d’image Alex Schnell

Les seiches, comme leurs plus proches pieuvres et calamars, sont étonnamment intelligentes Ils l’ont prouvé à nouveau en retardant la gratification en échange d’une plus grande récompense

In 1972, le professeur Walter Mischel a effectué un test désormais célèbre, mettant une guimauve devant un enfant entre trois et six ans, leur disant qu’il allait quitter la pièce – but if food survived his absence, they could have two instead Mischel then followed his subjects into adulthood and found that those who held the highest prize were generally more successful in life. Ironically, Mischel's interpretation of the reasons for this relationship may be wrong for people, but just for marine molluscs

The application of psychology tests originally designed for children to non-human animals is a growing field, revealing that abilities that seem to go together in humans may diverge in other species

Le Dr Alexandra Schnell de l’Université de Cambridge a enseigné aux céphalopodes le test de la guimauve en apprenant d’abord les préférences de six seiches communes (Sepia officinalis) entre trois aliments Schnell a ensuite mis la seiche dans des réservoirs avec deux chambres, leur apprenant que s’ils s’approchaient d’une chambre, la nourriture dans l’autre serait retirée. Une fois la leçon apprise, le crabe moins préféré a été placé dans une chambre et, après un délai, une crevette plus préférée dans l’autre Les sujets qui pouvaient résister au crabe ont gagné la crevette

Schnell rapporte dans les Actes de la Royal Society B que la seiche attendrait de 50 at 130 seconds to enjoy shrimp, but that she was not all so patient “The cuttlefish that learned these two associations the fastest were more apt to master themselves.”, Schnell said in a statement.

Social cash requires some level of deferred gratification, giving up their immediate interests to help others for a long term return Nonetheless, only the great apes, parrots and members of the raven family have already passed tests like this, despite experiences with many other species. The cuttlefish is not collaborative, so it's unclear why they developed this ability Schnell proposed that it could be a by-product of their hunting strategy

“Cuttlefish spend most of their time camouflaging themselves, to sit down and wait, punctuated by brief periods of foraging”, declared Schnell «They break the camouflage when they feed, they are therefore exposed to all predators of the ocean who want to eat them. We believe that deferred gratification may have evolved as a by-product of this, so that the cuttlefish can optimize foraging while waiting to choose better quality food.”

Cela fait à peine deux mois qu’une autre équipe a rapporté que la seiche apprenait à adapter sa chasse pour jouer les cotes Bien que la similitude avec le travail de Mischel ait été notée, cette étude n’a pas été conçue pour ressembler à la célèbre expérience, testant la capacité de jeu plutôt que la gratification retardée.

Une nouvelle génération de psychologues a signalé des failles dans les conclusions de Mischel Il a supposé que ce sont les enfants qui ont montré une capacité de gratification retardée qui a causé leur succès ultérieur dans la vie – for example, en restant plus longtemps dans l’éducation. However, subsequent research found that children growing up in unstable environments were less likely to pass the test, sometimes making entirely rational decisions based on their situation. If you're used to adults making promises they don't keep, why believe that a stranger tells you that there will be two marshmallows at some point in the future? Growing up not to achieve your dreams can be at least as much about starting from a shaky platform as any psychological failure.. Schnell's cuttlefish did not face such inequality in training

The marshmallow test retains its power of metaphor, including for society as a whole Can we, collectively, not to consume what we want now, so that there will be abundance in the future? If not, maybe the cuttlefish will inherit the earth

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Seiches, stanford marshmallow experiment, deferred gratification, cephalopod, marshmallow

News – FR – The cuttlefish has self-control to succeed in the «marshmallow test», unlike some toddlers
Associated title :
Cuttlefish Have self-control to succeed in «marshmallow test», unlike some toddlers
Cuttlefish are able to expect a Reward
Alexandra Schnell
The cuttlefish passed a version of the marshmallow test, a cognitive study for humans designed to test self-control
The cuttlefish passes the marshmallow test by exercising self-control
Intelligent cephalopod: a scuttlefish has passed the cognitive test created for human children!
Cephalopod passes cognitive test designed for children
Cuttlefish have self-control like humans! Smart fish pass the famous marshmallow test & choosing to wait two
cuttlefish found capable of delayed gratification, a first for invertebrates
The cuttlefish shows self-control, past & # 39; marshmallow test& # 39;

Source: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/cuttlefish-have-the-selfcontrol-to-pass-the-marshmallow-test-unlike-some-toddlers/

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