Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX and chief executive officer of Tesla Inc., speaks during a discussion at the Satellite 2020 Conference in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Monday, March 9, 2020. The event comprises important topics facing both satellite industry and end-users, and brings together a diverse group of thought leaders to share their knowledge.
(Bloomberg) — The year 2020 just keeps right on keeping on with the introduction of a group of pigs equipped with mind-reading brain implants courtesy of Elon Musk.
During an event Friday afternoon at Neuralinkâs headquarters in Fremont, California, Musk found himself hanging out with a passel of Yucatan swine. Several of them had previously undergone a surgical procedure in which a robot placed the latest version of Neuralinkâs computing implant into their brains. As a result, the brain activity of these enhanced porkers could be transmitted wirelessly to a nearby computer, allowing onlookers at the event to watch the animalsâ neurons fire as Musk strokes their snouts.
Musk spoke enthusiasticallyÂ at the eventÂ about the potential for the technology to address brain injuries and other disorders. “The neurons are like wiring, and you sortÂ of need an electronic thing to solve an electronic problem,” he said.
For the four-year-old startup, this demonstration is meant to show that Neuralinkâs brain-machine interface technology is progressing toward a day when it could be safely put into humans, possibly aiding people with a wide variety of debilitating conditions while also opening the door to a host of wild, sci-fi scenarios. Among them, Musk has said music could be transmitted directly into a personâs mind. Itâs that sort of ambitionÂ that could transform Neuralink from an expensive research project into a consumer electronics company that could somedayÂ justify the $158 million of capital invested so far, most of it from Musk.
The first major reveal of Neuralinkâs plans and technology came in July 2019 during a similar event in San Francisco. At that time, Musk showed early versions of Neuralink implants and disclosed that the company had already been performing tests on mice and primates in which it was able to record and analyze the animalsâ neuronal activity via tiny electrodes placed in their brain. This work was similar to what academic researchers and a small number of companies have been doing for decades. The goal of many of those projects is to use brain implants for miraculous feats like restoring vision for the blind, helping people who have been paralyzed or suffered strokes communicate and curing mental health disorders. And, indeed, people around the world have received implants that help with these very things.
The main argument made by Musk and other Neuralink employees is that the existing technology is too dangerous, cumbersome and limited for widespread use. The most powerful implants today require people to go through risky surgeries, and patients can often only experience the benefits of the technology while under the supervision of doctors and specialists. Beyond that, the lifespan of an implant can be short as the brain sees the device as an intruder, forming scar tissue around it that disrupts electrical signals. Neuralink, then, has tried to create a type of implant closer to a consumer electronics deviceâsomething that is much smaller and cheaper than existing products, less impactful to brain tissue and can process much more brain data.
Over the past couple of months, Neuralink has been implanting pigs with a device thatâs 22.5 millimeters across and 8 millimeters thick. The hardware has a computing chip on top with 64 minuscule threadsâor wiresâthat dangle off it with sensors at the ends. During the procedure, the animals are taken to an operating room at the Fremont facility and anesthetized before a surgeon performs a craniotomy on them.
Once part of the skull has been removed, a robot begins placing the threads into specific parts of the brain so that the sensors are close to neurons and can read clear brain activity signals. This sewing part of the procedure takes about 30 minutes, as the robot uses computer vision software, high-end cameras and other technology to aim the threads with exacting precision. âElon is unhappy with how long the whole procedure takes,â Max Hodak, the president of Neuralink, said in an interview.
In my encounter with one charming pig named Gertrude, it was very difficult to see any evidence of the implant or the surgery. The animalâs wound had healed completely, and it pranced around a makeshift metal pen at Neuralinkâs office just like some of the other pigs that did not have implants. But, as I fed Gertrude a carrot and rubbed her snout, a massive computer screen behind her lit up with activity, showing her neurons firing and responding to my touch. Next, Gertrude farted, which I took as an approval of our interaction.
But the controversial nature of animal testing and the celebrity of its founder has made Neuralink a magnet for criticism from animal-rights activists. The company said the test subjects are cared for by animal husbandry experts and that itâs limiting testing on primates.
In a bid to prove the safety of its technology, Neuralink has removed the implants from some animals and found that they go back to their regular lives with no apparent ill effects, the company said. In some cases, Neuralink has managed to place two implants in a single animal, getting signals from both hemispheres of the brain at the same time. The company has also managed not just to read out brain activity but also to send in signals to the electrodes and stimulate the brain. All of this research has been taking place at Neuralinkâs 50,000-square foot campus, which includes facilities for robot assembly, chip and thread fabrication and animal husbandry.
At one point, Neuralink had intended to use an implant as well asÂ another device placed behind the ear to handle things like wireless communication. Now, however, it has bundled everything into one small device. âItâs just simpler this way,â said Hodak. The implant battery lasts about 24 hours, at which point it can be recharged wirelessly much like a smartphone. Over time, Neuralink hopes to shrink the device, while also improving its computing power.
Musk had previously said that Neuralink would like to conduct human trials as early as this year. This, of course, would require regulatory approvals and assurances that the technology is safe. âThe ambition of human trials this year is something we would love to do,â Hodak said. âItâs obviously something that canât be rushed, and we can do it when weâre ready. While we canât sell this to you yet, itâs starting to feel more like a product, more concrete. Now, we have a Fitbit for the brain.â
Hodak denied the claims from a recent article by health publication Stat News in which former Neuralink employees said the company might go to Russia or China, where regulators can be more lenient, for its human trials. âWe have never once discussed going to Russia or China,â Hodak said. Neuralink has been granted âbreakthrough device statusâ by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means the agency will respond more quickly to the companyâs filings than it would have previously but doesnât constitute an approval for testing in humans. âWeâre very much working hand-in-hand with the FDA,â Hodak said.
Musk has tried to stress the health benefits of this type of brain-machine interface technology. People who suffer from debilitating conditions would be the most likely candidates to take the risks of trying a brain implant first as they could receive dramatic benefits. Someone who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak, for example, could simply think what they want to say, and their words could be said aloud by a computer or typed onto a screen.
Of course, Musk also sees more futuristic applications of these implants like the ability to create a high-bandwidth link between humans and machines. A la The Matrix, you might be able to download a language instantly or learn martial arts, Musk has suggested. The end goal, at least for Musk, would be to help humans keep pace with artificial intelligence. Musk captured this sentiment when describing Neuralinkâs mission statement earlier this year: âIf you canât beat em, join em.â
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